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Washingtonia robusta

Skyduster, Mexican Cotton Palm

This is the slimmer of the two species of Washingtonia and considered to be slightly less cold tolerant, though it grows considerably taller than the foregoing. When young, the two species are not easy to tell apart, though it becomes increasingly evident as they mature. In some areas it may be somewhat over-used and is often the first choice of the street planner, influenced no doubt by its ready availability, fast growth, and consequent low price, but also by its many virtues as an avenue tree. Given the choice of the two species of Washingtonia, however, it should be chosen over W. filifera by those in areas of higher rainfall, as it is more tolerant of dampness and humidity than its cousin, and will do well in almost any climate between temperate and tropical.

 
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germination comments by our visitors
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Seeds from this species ...

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Probably the easiest palm seed to germinate! Its probably harder to try and get them not to germinate! They become a weed in places where they used extensively for street planting. Soak for a few days in water, then transfer to a zip lock bag or tupperware box lined with moss or even damp paper towel, keep at room temp, or maybe a bit higher, such as a windowsill or airing cupboard. They should start sprouting in a few days to a week, then may continue to do so for a few weeks until a very high germination rate has been achieved! Often close to 100%! Seeds should also be cleaned before sowing, but in my experience they germinate before fungus has even thought about attacking! Very easy seed, stunning tree, fast grower, a palm growers staple.
Submitted on 11/09/2013 by Lee Roberts

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
This is the palm if you have never tried palms before. This one is foolproof. Clean and soak seed for 2 days dip in a suitable fungicide, then place in a plastic box between damp kitchen towel. Seed started to sprout with in 2 days. These palms have the advantage of being fast growers.
Submitted on 28/02/2013 by Jason Hall

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I took a different approach. Had to delay planting so I placed them (400 seeds) at 38 degree (F) in refrigerator for 6 months. Placed in tap water for 3 days, refreshed each day. Soaked in 10% bleach/water for 30 seconds or so. Planted in Jiffy Pellets using latex gloves. Pellets placed in clear covered planting trays. Kept moist. Many seeds fell to bottom and germinated in the pan without soil. Outside in warm 75 nights, 90 days. Germinated 50% in 10 days to 2 weeks. Additional 25% germinated in 1 month. Additional 5 to 10% in 2 months. Not sure about the rest. Planted pellets, when germinated, in #1 pots in generic planting mix, no fertilizer. Personally, my most successful germination. Very easy.
Submitted on 21/08/2012 by one of our visitors

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Seeds sprouted in 3 days!! (01st - 03rd of December):First trial with Washingtonia Robusta. I soaked 25 seeds for 5 days in tabwater. +22 degrees Celcius. Changed the water once a day. Then I put "builders sand" (quite fine grain) 1/2 inch deeply in 1 liter ice-cream container. The sand barely moistened. I pushed the seeds into the sand. Closed the lid tightly. Then kept the container 16 hours in about +30 to 33 degrees of Celcius above a radiator and nighttime aproximately 8 hours in +22 celcius. No lighting. No fungisides. :)
Submitted on 05/12/2009 by Kokonut

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I collect 26 fresh seed of the tree and sow them in soil. For 2 week 19 shoot shown. Don't over water or it will rot.
Submitted on 01/12/2008 by one of our visitors

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I soaked the seeds for 3 days in room temp water. afterwards put the damp soil ontop of a paper towel inside of a clear plastic container. closed the lid to hold in the warm air . I set it on a heating pad inside my desk. t cept the temprature at 95 degrees F. whith in 5 days 80% of my 100 seeds had germinated .
Submitted on 07/08/2008 by one of our visitors

... are easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I bought Washingtonia Robusta seeds from this site. I split 22 into four, three inch pots filled with peat moss and perilite. All pots were covered in ziplock bags with bottom heat. After 3 weeks they started sprouting out. I am very happy with the freshness and ease of germination these seeds.
Submitted on 28/04/2008 by Bradley Sharp

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Very easy to sprout, I had seeds from a year old but in 2/3 weeks most have sprouted. Very easy at roomtemperature
Submitted on 29/12/2007 by d.b. daen---lollig.gainig@hotmail.com

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
November in Rijeka, Croatia (zone 9) is not the best time for germination so I made a germination box from an old commode by placing a lightbulb inside that kept temp. at about 33 C. I had 6 different palm species. Seeds were soaked for 4 days and put in sphagnum soil/sand 1/1 mix inside plastic boxes and kept moist. Washingtonia Robusta sprouted after only 4 days, Filifera after 6. One week later, they're already 5 cm high.
Submitted on 07/11/2007 by Marin seamar5@yahoo.com

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
These are the easiest I have come accross, they took less then a month to appear even when the indoor temp was below 20C most the time. So definetly one of the easy palms to propogate.
Submitted on 24/07/2007 by Nikko nikko_halliwell@optusnet.com.au

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Like everybody said they were easy to sprout. I put in water in a baking dish hung over a light bulb to keep it hot 30-40 degrees celcius for three days. Changing the water each day. After that I planted them in seed sterter and in 5 days they were sprouting like grass, good luck growing
Submitted on 30/04/2007 by one of our visitors

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Soaked in tapid water for 4 days. The water was changed daily, the final day they were in tapwater so chlorine would kill any bacteria. They were then planted in a standard potting mixture with some cocohum added. They started germinating in under 10 days and almost all of them germinated within 6 weeks.
Submitted on 07/02/2007 by one of our visitors

... are very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I got some of these seeds when I took a trip to California and I brought them home and soaked them in superthrieve for 24 hours and in about a day and a half about 5 started sprouting and now a few weeks later they are over 1 foot high and I have over a dozen growing I have them in sunlight most of the day and a 48 inch daylight bulb the rest and they are doing awesome.
Submitted on 22/11/2006 by Tom Conroy kgregor2@msn.com

... are very easy to germinate.
first clean the seeds than put seeds 5 days in warm water (put them on a boiler ore something like that temprature must be around 35C°)after 5 days they germinate.
Submitted on 27/08/2006 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Well, I shook a tree and about 25 seeds came down. The tree was pretty small but the fruit/seeds came down. I cleaned off the seed which was easy. Put them in water for just a day. Within 5 days they have all sprouted. This was about 4 years ago and they are all in 15 gallon pots. All 25. Each about 6-7 feet all. Very tall for their pot. Im giving them out to my neighbors. These grow really quick. When you add alittle humidity to them they take off like crazy. Im very proud. Germinating them was really easy. They must of been moist since they came from the tree. This is a great first stater palm seed. This was my first. To this day this is the easist palm to germinate. Have a good day
Submitted on 18/05/2005 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
soked the seeds in water for three days. Sprout after 20 days, then I Put the plants in pots.
Submitted on 09/06/2005 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I received 14 (ordered 10 !)apparently very fresh seeds from this site. I soaked them in water for 2 days and put them in a plastic bag with only moist cocopeat. On top of the heating device (30°C day / 20°C night). After 4 days 10 germinated and 3 days later the last 4. Unbelievable fast. First leaf about 8 cm within 1,5 month. Very rewarding palm! I hope it can last outside in western europe (cool temperate zone 8b)
Submitted on 07/04/2005 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
To get results you have to think like a plant, just find what type of temperature and amount of water the plant likes, then put it in the same growing area.Since Washingtonia Robusta like tropical environments, I put 3 seeds in a small pot with moist clay soil.I put plastic on top of the pot to lock in the warm air(taking off the plastic once every week so the seeds can get fresh air),and I then put under the pot a pan hot water. The steam rises up to the pot and warms the pot up causing a tropical effect, and in about 1 month time, maybe even 3 weeks, I had 3 washingtonia robusta growing.
Submitted on 08/03/2005 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
To get results you have to think like a plant, just find what type of temperature and amount of water the plant likes, then put it in the same growing area.Since Washingtonia Robusta like tropical environments, I put 3 seeds in a small pot with moist clay soil.I put plastic on top of the pot to lock in the warm air(taking off the plastic once every week so the seeds can get fresh air),and I then put under the pot a pan hot water. The steam rises up to the pot and warms the pot up causing a tropical effect, and in about 1 month time, maybe even 3 weeks, I had 3 washingtonia robusta growing.
Submitted on 08/03/2005 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
To get results you have to think like a plant, just find what type of temperature and amount of water the plant likes, then put it in the same growing area.Since Washingtonia Robusta like tropical environments, I put 3 seeds in a small pot with moist clay soil.I put plastic on top of the pot to lock in the warm air(taking off the plastic once every week so the seeds can get fresh air),and I then put under the pot a pan hot water. The steam rises up to the pot and warms the pot up causing a tropical effect, and in about 1 month time, maybe even 3 weeks, I had 3 washingtonia robusta growing.
Submitted on 08/03/2005 by one of our visitors

...easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Had to use these seeds for a seed scarification project. Best results came from the ones that we removed the seed coat from, but making holes in the seed coat allowed for germination as well. We used clean styrofoam containers lined with wet paper towels, and put the seeds in and covered them with more wet paper towels. After 2.5 weeks, about 30 percent of the seeds with the shell coat removed had germinated, as had samples from the others with only partial shell removed. At the 4 week mark, there was a 50% germination rate for the shell-removed samples, and many of the germinated seeds had at least a two to three inch radicle (primary root)Notes: there was mold with this method, but it did not seem to affect the seeds, except perhaps by helping to weaken the shells. Also, our control, the seeds with no damage to the seed coat, did not germinate whatsoever.Hopefully someone will find this helpful.
Submitted on 01/11/2004 by Jamie Morse miss_bunker@yahoo.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
First I soaked the seeds for about 24 hours in distilled water. Then I placed the seeds in a plastic bag containing SCOTTS' seed starter mix. I put just enough distilled water in the mix to make it moist. I then placed the bag in a window sill that recieves light for about six to seven hours a day. Before I knew it the seeds had begun to sprout in about two to three weeks
Submitted on 14/10/2004 by Travis Gaylord etgaylord@peoplepc.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Soak seeds in water for 24 hours speeds up the germination process. Use a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and perlite. Plant seeds in baggies and keep in a warm location. A seedling heat mat as a source of bottom heat works great. Germination in a week or less.
Submitted on 10/10/2004 by Ashley Roberts dairyworld21@aol.com

...not rated.
Recently I planted a few seeds of Washingtonia robusta that I had collected seven (7) years ago. I was amazed at the fact that most of the seeds germinated in just 20 days. All I did was soak the seeds in water for 3 days and plant then in small containers covered plastic wrap. Zone 10, Corfu, Greece.
Submitted on 11/08/2004 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 6 months to sprout.
I sowed the seeds direct in peat moss (no presoak) and left everything on a spot witch received full sun and the heat was around 90°F (30°C). The first seed sprouted after 2 weeks and they kept on going for 2 months...I have also managed to germinate the seeds at 60°F (15°C) with much better success.
Submitted on 29/04/2004 by Jón Ágúst Erlingsson johnny13@torg.is

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
I collected 1-2 dozen seeds from some large specimens in Savannah, Georgia and planted 3 in a pot with seedling starting soil and plastic wrap over the top. I placed them outside in the summer heat and all 3 sprouted in around 10-15 days. Let me tell you that in a humid climate with poor soil, you can't beat the W. Robusta! After you grow one, you'll be hooked! They grow super fast, and are irresistably cute when they are babies! If you want a reasonably cold hardy palm (recovers quickly from temps as low as 15F/ -30C) that's fun and easy to grow, this is the palm for you! Try 'em, you'll love 'em!
Submitted on 20/02/2004 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Used a mix of 1/2 standard potting soil and 1/2 seeding mix. Provided bottom heat with temps consistant at 90 degrees. Seeds were three months old. Soaked in clean water for 4 days prior to planting. Humidity at 50%. Seeds germinate in 21-30 days with 3" in tap root. Sprout will follow in 7 days. Keep seedling in same heat and humidity and in complete dark until the tip turns light green or light yellow. Then introduce to light. The leaf will unfold. This method will gain you a 3 to 4 inch increase of leaf surface for the seedling. Measured growth at 1/4 inch every 3 days up to leafing. Plant will rapidly grow new leaves and be as much as 4 inches taller than those introduced to light as soon as stem begin to form. You will have longer leaves and thus a more tolerant plant for indoor use. The increase in leaf surface will allow more rapid growth under artifical light. No fertilization needed until 2 months after germination. Trees are 8 inches tall with three leaves in three months. During this phase I only supplied water and heat from below. Fertilizer at three months with a good palm mix in water and placed under plant in tray. Root system is extensive at 4 months. New growth noted every week.
Submitted on 13/01/2004 by Tim tpjohnson@bluebunny.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
ordered 100 seeds and soaked them in ro water for 5 days, changing the water daily. planted in plastic pans about 8 inches deep in a 50/50 mix of peat and vermiculite. had pans in garage in september, which is from 75 to 95 F here in houston. nearly 100% germination within 60 days. put in 1 gallon pots and lost about 15 in the process. have outside now and they are about 12 inches tall and most are starting their 4th leaf. these are very good palms for houston. i planted 3 last year and after 2 summers they are 12 feet tall. very fast growers here.will give most to neighbors.
Submitted on 13/01/2004 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Soaked seeds for 24 hours. Put the seeds in coco peat/plastic bag and within 3 weeks 100% are up! Great seeds!
Submitted on 25/11/2003 by one of our visitors

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Picked ~10 robusta seeds off the ground by the parade of Washingtonia/Butia at the harbour in Barcelona (Nov 2003), and not really expecting any success placed in moist vermiculite in ziplock bag in airing cupboard (25-30C). Within 10 days all had sprouted. Planted singly in 3 inch pots in John Innes No.1 sterile seed compost topped with vermiculite. All are now growing well (juvenile leaf 15cm) in tray on radiator in kitchen (15-23C range). No special treatment. Should make OK houseplants for a while - after which time they'll be 'trialled' outside here in Cambridge UK...
Submitted on 22/12/2003 by Martin Harrop martinharrop@btinternet.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
soaked seeds in water for 3 days, changing water daily. Started a few hundred seeds in a 8" deep flat of pro mix. 99 percent germination in only a couple weeks. Have since transplanted out into 1 gallon pots, and most have survived.
Submitted on 21/08/2003 by Doug Chenneville fnotropicals@aol.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
easiest. Soaked seeds for 24 hours, rinsed with fresh water and placed on germinating bed. I use a mix of 1/3 rich top soil, 1/3 bonemeal, 1/3 vermiculite. laid out seeds on bed, covered with spahgnum moss and a light layer of the mixture to keep the moss damp over the seeds. Within 16 days, 90% are up out of 1000 seeds. Very Happy!
Submitted on 06/06/2003 by David faders@usa2net.net

...difficult to germinate and need up to 1 year to sprout.
Only got a few plants out of 10 seeds. SLOW
Submitted on 19/02/2003 by Tomas apollo006@hotmail.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
You can even get 100% in 1,5 month. Presoak for 2 days. Warm temperature (above 30 deg C) speeds them up. I have also noticed that light speeds the germination up.
Submitted on 18/02/2003 by Andreas Zikos an_zikos@yahoo.gr

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Soak seeds in fresh water changing daily for 5 days then put in a zip lock bag in a simi moist potting soil and keep at about 95 degrees you may see germination in two weeks. Good luck.
Submitted on 07/01/2003 by SID MCALISTER SMCALIS939@AOL.COM

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Easy and fast, using no special conditions.
Submitted on 23/12/2002 by Van vandringar@hotmail.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Love these guys! The easiest palm tree seeds to grow! Mine came up within two weeks, and I've now got a housefull of them, some already three feet tall!
Submitted on 11/12/2002 by Leslie Price skinnychick2@yahoo.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
seeds were soaked in water for 3 says than planted in peat moss. plants are about 5to6 months old and some are about one foot high and getting a thick trunk.
Submitted on 07/08/2002 by Gail Henard Thehenards@aol.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Very easy from seed. I have 23 started now.From seed sown in May they are between 6 and 12 in.Last years seeds are at least 36in. I didn't use any special heat or light. Zone 9
Submitted on 31/08/2002 by Marlene Stewart candrand3@juno.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
This palm germinates easily in a loose friable soil mix with no special treatment. They can even be sown outdoors in the summer. Temperatures anywhere from 15 - 30C are fine. The seeds are not generally subject to rot, fungus gnats, damping off or other problems.
Submitted on 01/08/2002 by Ian Barclay deus_vobiscum@hotmail.com

...easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
This was the first time I tried to grow palms from seeds and it all came about when I picked up seeds from the Huge Washingtonia Robuster outside my work office, I read that they needs a temp of about 38 Degress C. So what I did was I a plastic bottel in half from top to bottom, filled up rich black river soil (from a ESTUARY) covered them with a damp clothe, kept it damp at all times and placed it in the back window of my car.
Submitted on 08/03/2002 by Zane Townsend ztownsend@go2uti.com

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Under 20-25°C 95% germination in sfagnum within 4 weeks.
Submitted on 03/03/2002 by Henk hsloesen@hetnet.nl

...easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
Easy to germinate these fellows,at the beginning not direct sun but a lot of light and ofcourse water to keep moist!....
Submitted on 03/03/2002 by dionysis trigonis goodsmile@mland.gr

...very easy to germinate and need up to 1 month to sprout.
The quickiest germinator ! Sow in universal compost at 20-25, keep humid, sprouts just after 1 week if seeds very fresh.Extreme heats seems to inhibit germination.
Submitted by one of our visitors

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plant cultivation comments by our visitors
Also see germination commnets above.

Plants from this species ...

In Los Angeles County in America they need little care and grow very fast.
Very Easy to Grow! After the seeds sprouted, I placed them in 2 gallon containers filled with commercial palm soil and placed them in a partially shaded patio. They grew very well there and only need occasional watering. After 6 months, they are about 7 inches high with many leaves.
Submitted on 30/06/2008 by one of our visitors

... are of excellent ornamental value
In Groveland, Florida in USA they need very little care and grow fast.
The fastest method I have found for propagating palm seeds is by using The Model PC-70 Propagation Chamber. I first tried soaking 50 Washingtonia robusta seeds in warm spring warm for, four days potted them up in accelarator potswith a 50% peat and 50% perlite mixture. I treated the water used in the chamber with Hydro-guard. In seven days time. 46 of the seeds sprouted. I removed them from the chamber after they developed second leaves and they're doing great. Also have germinated Windmills and Queens with this same chamber. I now do them by the thousands with excellent results. Wish I tried this chamber years ago. As long as you use viable seed it better than any method I have ever used. I just set the thermostat to 93 degrees and forget about it. Trust me if you do this for a living, Best way to do it,bar none. Martin of MarLynns Nursery!
Submitted on 08/04/2008 by Martin Vukovich martin928@embarqmail.com

... are of average ornamental value
In Amsterdam in Netherlands they need very little care and grow very fast.
here in the Netherlands they're fast growing palms and can make every year 20 leaves.this year was a bad summer with temperatures almost never above the 30 degrees and still it growed very well here.some here have the palm in ground and with a little protection to the rain and the cold (lower than -8) it can survive well here.
Submitted on 29/12/2007 by d.b. daen---lollig.gainig@hotmail.com

... are of high ornamental value
In nr London (Berkshire) in England they need average care and grow fast.
Germination very easy for beginners, just follow nearly any of the other comments. The problem I found was after taking seedlings out the baggy and placing tiny seedlings into little pots (approx 10cm high) they died after the first 1 or 2 strap leaves. I found this due to low humidity and when covered with a clear plastic bottle or plastic bag around pot with elastic band left on the window sill (inside), they became alot better (live near London UK, so outside not possible in cold months.)
Submitted on 27/10/2007 by Douglas Gray douglas.gray@hotmail.co.uk

... are of average ornamental value
In amsterdam in The Netherlands they need very little care and grow very fast.
These seeds come up almost directly at 20 degreeds celsius. Like grass! In my opinion there is no need for presoaking in water. Just plant them in the place where you want them to be. You can't go wrong. The seeds stay viable for a long time also!Right now they are growing very fast in a small shaded glasshouse where it is warm in daytime (30 degreeds) and cold at night ( 12 degreeds celsius). Leaves come out almost as fast as a bananaplant!
Submitted on 22/06/2007 by Kai Kuné fishyboy2@hotmail.com

... are of average ornamental value
In Central California in US they need very little care and grow very fast.
There are about 30 miles of this palm planted along the main street here in Chowchilla, CA (zone 9b/10a). They are about 100 years old and dwarf almost everything immediately around them. Birds like to eat the fruits and wherever they poop, there is most likely a washingtonia robusta seed. Here in my yard i pull them like weeds. They grow in every crack and crevice. I have kept five of these palms which all seem to grow at different rates. After three years, two are about 6 feet high with about three feet of trunk and the others are following close behind them. They seem to love our central california heat (summer temps averageing 110+ degrees farenheight with ocassional years reaching 125 degrees!!). They do tolerate some degree of frost. Our winters are generally mild with temperatures ocassionally falling below 32 degrees farenheight. This last January of 2007, we had a severe freeze with temperatures falling into the low 20s for about a week and 18 degrees for two nights. The younger palms had their leaves burned quite badly but foiliage damage is all they got from the freeze. The older palms growing along the main street didnt seem affected at all except for the tips which became brown and crispy. Washingtonias are quite resistant to strong winds and the really tall ones look quite gracefull as they sway a great deal in strong winds. Sometimes they deop old fronds during high wind situations and they do have extremely sharp spines that are curved like shark's teeth! It should also be placed near an accessable part of your yard since you sill need to call some kind of palm pruning specialists to cut of old leaves at hights of 80-100 ft.
Submitted on 05/03/2007 by josh diaz jdiaz31089@yahoo.com

win € 75 worth of seeds
by writing a plant cultivation comment about how to cultivate the plants of this species. Click here!

If you wish to read more on palm cultivation, we highly recommend Ornamental Palm Horticulture by Timothy K. Broschat and Alan W. Meerow, available in our bookshop.

Ratings and comments reflect individual experiences and the views of our visitors. They do not necessarily describe the most appropriate methods, nor are they necessarily valid for all seeds or plants of this species. Germination and plant cultivation success depends on many different factors; nevertheless, these experiences will hopefully aid you in your effort to get the best germination results from our seeds and the best growth results from your plants.

 
       
 
We recommend:
The Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms

The Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms
by Robert Lee Riffle, Paul Craft, Scott Zona

2nd edition
Completely revised and updated

Hardcover - 528 pages
11 x 8.5 inches


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The Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms is the definitive account of all palms that can be grown for ornamental and economic use. Palms are often underutilized as a result of their unfamiliarity—even to tropical gardeners. To help introduce these valuable plants to a new audience, the authors have exhaustively documented every genus in the palm family.
825 species are described in detail, including cold hardiness, water needs, height, and any special requirements. Generously illustrated with more than 900 photos, including photos of several palm species that have never before appeared in a general encyclopedia, The Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms is as valuable as an identification guide as it is a practical handbook. Interesting snippets of history, ethnobotany, and biology inform the text and make this a lively catalog of these remarkable plants.


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