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An evergreen shrub or small tree to 6 m tall with whitish flowers and ornamental red-orange berries. It is native to the southeastern USA and northeastern Mexico. Another underappreciated stimulating holly, it is related to yerba mate and guayusa and its leaves are a rich source of caffeine alkaloids. It was once a primary sacred plant of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole and other Native American tribes. In cultivation it is easy to grow, tolerant of alkaline and salty soils, sun to partial shade and suitable for USDA Zones 6 and above. The seeds are somewhat erratic to germinate and can take up to 2 years to sprout. They will benefit from cold stratification after sowing.